Problem set 3
Due by 11:59 PM on Wednesday, February 12, 2020
You must submit all assignments as a Word document. Answer all questions carefully and neatly. Use section headings to distinguish what question you are answering. Be neat. If the question involves a graph, copy/paste the graph into your document and make sure the graph has a title.
Task 1: Land Invasions in Brazil
Let’s look at this data on land invasions in Brazilian municipalities (kinda like a US district) between 1988 and 2004. This data covers the whole of Brazil: not just rural areas.
|ext_pov||Extreme Poverty (Percent) 1991|
|occs||Land Occupations 1988-2004|
|logarea||Logged (Land Area)|
|logfam||Logged (Families Involved in Land Occupations) 1988-2004|
|logpop||Logged (Population) 1991|
- Look at one or two of the municipalities with the highest rates of land invasions. Look them up online, and also see if you can find any reference to invasions happening there (OK if you don’t); what are these places like? Where are they within Brazil? What stands out about them?
- Plot the relationship between land invasions and two of the other variables in the dataset using whatever type of plot you like (2 plots). What’s the relationship in the the plots? What stands out?
Task 2: Measuring Poverty
Measuring poverty in Latin America is hard. You can simply ask people how much they make each month, but their incomes might vary wildly from month to month. Some may not know, exactly, how much they make. And two people with the same monthly income may have very different levels of wealth as a result of divergent life circumstances.
We’re going to try to measure poverty using data on household assets from Honduras in 2018. Each of the
r columns tells you whether or not a household has a particular asset (e.g., fridge, cell phone, etc.). If a household has the asset, the cell = 1, otherwise = 0.
- Calculate the proportion of households who own an asset, for 3 assets of your choosing separately for urban and rural areas.You can either do this by filtering or (easier approach) using a pivot table, putting the asset on “value” and
Are you surprised by the results? Are they higher or lower than you thought they would be? How different are urban and rural households?
- Pick a set of assets that you think are important for households in rural areas, and a set for urban areas. Create a new column that is the sum of those column assets so that the column tells you how many of your chosen assets that household has, but separately for urban and rural areasThe video tutorial walks through one approach using the analogy of students who wear hats/don’t wear hats.
. Now, create a new column called “poverty_index” that categorizes households into
high-incomebased on the number of assets they have.Also in the tutorial (the part using
IFSand good, bad, ok, students). At this point you might have a ton of columns. You can select all the columns you want out of the way, right-click, and select hide to keep your spreadsheet looking happy.
Plot the distribution (bar plot, column chart) of “poverty_index” in the data, separately for urban and rural areas. Do they fit what you’d expect? How skewed are they? What stands out about them?
You’ve just created measures of poverty based on household assets. Let’s see how well these measures capture poverty. Using a pivot table, take the average of two non-asset variables you think should be related to poverty for each level of “poverty_index”. Then, plot “poverty_index” on the x-axis and these averages on the y-axis in two new plots. What does the relationship look like? Would you say the measure you created captures poverty well, or not?
|ed||Years of Schooling|
|q10new_18||Monthly Household Income|
|r1||Television in Home|
|r3||Refrigerator in Home|
|r4||Landline in Home|
|r4a||Cellular Telephone in Home|
|r5||Number of Vehicles at the House|
|r6||Washing Machine in Home|
|r7||Microwave Oven in Home|
|r12||Drinking water in Home|
|r14||Indoor Bathroom in Home|
|r15||Computer in Home|
|r16||Flat Panel TV in Home|
|r18||Internet Service in Home|
|q14||Intends to Live or Work Abroad|
|fs2||Has Run Out of Food in the Last 3 Months (1 = yes)|
|fs8||Has Gone without Meals in the Last 3 Months (1 = yes)|
|wf1||Receives Government Assistance (1 = yes)|